The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, known as the Royal Society, is a learned society for science, and is possibly the oldest such society in existence. Founded in November 1660, it was granted a Royal Charter by King Charles II as the "Royal Society of London". The Society today acts as a scientific advisor to the British government, receiving a parliamentary grant-in-aid as well as the UK's Academy of Sciences and funds research fellowships and scientific start-up companies. The Society's core members are the Fellows: scientists and engineers from the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth selected based on having made "a substantial contribution to the improvement of natural knowledge, including mathematics, engineering science and medical science". Fellows are elected for life, and gain the right to use the postnomial Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) title. The rights and responsibilities of Fellows also include a duty to financially contribute to the Society, the right to stand for Council posts, and the right to elect new Fellows (forty-four are elected each year).


 Fellow ofthe Royal Society

Post Nominal Recognition


Year Received by Churchill



“Leave the past to history especially as I propose to write that history myself.”

Winston S. Churchill